The focusing speed is the most critical factor in the screening, because often the effects to be examined are time-dependent. Also the irradiation of fluorescent tracer is toxic to cells, and in an automated handling process, the requirement is for high throughput of samples. Depth effects can be observed fine adjustment of the focus for the three-dimensional imaging in this way. The adjustment of the focus on different levels of virtually cut the sample. The piezo drive allows you as a keen eye on operations within the sample. Responsiveness and settling times are again in the range of few milliseconds. A measurement is possible due to the high speed stability during movement.

The confocal microscopy is used to generate a three-dimensional image of a sample. Here, images of the sample in different focal planes are created and assembled by software. The entitlement to the resolution of the Z drive to adjust the focal plane are very high here, positioning accuracies in the range of a few 10 nanometers are required. Classic stepper motor drives are neither fast nor accurate enough here. PIFOC Piezo Z-drives: The imaging optics or the trial must be moved for lens, lens turret or sample holder for focus tasks and the adjustment of the focal plane. PIFOC Z-drives for the lens can be built very small and stiff. You therefore have faster response times, better governance and are accurate at large travel paths.

Another advantage is that the sample does not move during focusing and thus despite the quick response of the Piezos, remains undisturbed. The movement of the sample is however, not weakening the image in phase contrast microscopy (differential interference contrast microscopy, DIC). Also, Piezo-Z-drives for the sample due to their small size can be integrated in the motorized XY sample scanner, the as a system component of the microscope there is already common. The adaptation effort can thus minimized, lenses can be used flexibly. Customized PIFOC lens drives but move as the entire revolver or move a DIC Prism with highly specialised applications require appropriate solutions. Many microscope manufacturers already offer a wide range of equipment and accessories for the various microscopy techniques system integration. Sample scanner in the XY include level and Z rough shoots for the imaging optics that achieve accuracies in the range of microns with the usual stepper drives. Piezobasierte Z-drives for fast focusing are, however, rare to find standard accessories on the microscope manufacturers; These must usually be retrofitted. The task of the manufacturer of piezo drive systems is also to adapt lens Positioners for lens sizes. Piezo Z-drives for samples of physics instruments (PI) with travel strokes from 0.1 to 0.5 mm Watch XY-scanner without adapter in March-houses. Sample holder can be used Z adjuster for slides and micro titer plates of March homes directly in the piezo. The still low overall height of the built-in XY-Z system allows the use under common microscopes. Also the control of the Piezoantriebs must be easily integrated. This is a fast control via analogue signals. Alternative commanding via digital interfaces is implemented via software drivers. Piezo-Z-drives represent a possibility of easy-to-integrate, to adjust lens and sample relatively to each other. While a resolution can be achieved by a few nanometers for travel paths of up to 0.5 mm. The response times are just a few milliseconds.